Classification of meningitis

Classification • Based on etiology - Infectious - Non infectious • Based on Duration - Acute - Subacute - Chronic • Based on culture report - Septic - Aseptic 23-03-2018 Dept Of Paediatrics , J N Medical College , Belagavi. Types of Meningitis Viral Meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. You can develop viral meningitis as a... Bacterial Meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is the second most common type of infectious meningitis, and it can be... Fungal Meningitis. Fungal meningitis is not. bacterial meningitis have been diagnosed by C.S.F. findings; namely by examining the protein and sugar content, by the cell counts, Gram's staining and culturing of the sediments of C.S.F. 188 cases were proven by culturing to be meningococcic meningitis. All these cases are from the families living in suburban areas of th

Meningitis ( Introduction , classification

  1. Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises
  2. Types of meningitis Viral meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. Viruses in the Enterovirus category cause 85... Bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is contagious and caused by infection from certain bacteria. It's fatal if... Fungal meningitis. Fungal meningitis.
  3. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and devastating infection of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Naegleria fowleri is a free-living microscopic ameba that lives in warm water and soil
  4. Meningitis arises upon inflammation of the meninges, which consists of the membrane that envelops and protects the central nervous system. N. meningitidis is also commonly known as meningococcus and is carried by approximately 8-25% of the general population in the normal mucosa of the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract
  5. Meningitis is a disease process where the protective layers that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Meningitis can be infectious or it can be caused by injury, cancer, and other noninfectious causes. Infectious meningitis can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. It can also be caused by parasites or other toxins
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Classification of meningitis1. Based on duration, meningitis is classified as: Acute: symptoms present within a period of 0 - 24 hrs Sub acute: symptoms lasting from 1-7 days. Chronic: symptoms lasting over 7 days2. Based on aetiology: Bacterial meningitis Viral (aseptic) meningitis Fungal meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an acute disease with high mortality that is reduced by early treatment. Identification of the causative microorganism by culture is sensitive but slow. Large volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required to maximis The bacteremic phase is moderate in patients with meningitis and mild systemic meningococcemia but graded high in patients with septic shock. Three landmark studies using this classification system and comprising 862 patients showed that 37-49% developed meningitis without shock, 10-18% shock without meningitis, 7-12% shock and meningitis, and 18-33% had mild meningococcemia without shock or meningitis Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can be divided into 2 broad categories: those primarily involving the meninges (meningitis; see the image below) and those primarily confined to the.. Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia are caused by various serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) which is an aerobic Gram-negative encapsulated bacteria. At least 12 serotypes of meningococcus have been characterized by differences in the polysaccharide capsule, of which groups A, B and C account for about 90% of meningococcal disease

Types of Meningitis - Verywell Healt

Tuberculous Meningitis; Pathology and Classification J Egypt Med Assoc. 1956;39(1):36-56. Author A A GHAREEB. PMID: 13332173 MeSH terms Humans Tuberculosis* Tuberculosis, Meningeal*. Bacterial meningitis is an acute disease with high mortality that is reduced by early treatment. Identification of the causative microorganism by culture is sensitive but slow. Large volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required to maximise sensitivity and establish a provisional diagnosis. We have utilised nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly characterise the. Meningitis is an inflammation of the fluid and membranes (meninges) surrounding your brain and spinal cord. The swelling from meningitis typically triggers signs and symptoms such as headache, fever and a stiff neck. Most cases of meningitis in the United States are caused by a viral infection, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are. Meningitis is defined as inflammation involving the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be categorized as acute, subacute, or chronic based on duration of inflammation. This article focuses on the most common causes of subacute and chronic meningitis. Chronic meningitis is commonly

[Classification of acute bacterial meningitis cases

  1. ths: A large, multicellular organism (worm) that is generally visible to the naked eye in its adult stages. - Hel
  2. ology used in microbiology. The lecture will: 1. Cover different classification schemes for grouping bacteria, especially the use of the Gram stain 2. Describe the different types of bacteria 3
  3. Colonies are positive by the oxidase test and most strains utilize maltose. The phenotypic classification of meningococci, based on structural differences in capsular polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and outer membrane proteins, is now complemented by genome sequence typing (ST)
  4. Meningitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis, followed by bacterial meningitis. Rarer types of meningitis include chemical and fungal meningitis. The most common types of bacterial meningitis are meningococcal, pneumococcal, TB, group B streptococcal and E.coli
  5. Meningitis is characterized by inflammation of the membranes (meninges) around the brain or spinal cord. Inflammation can begin suddenly (acute) or develop gradually (subacute). Major symptoms may include fever, headache, and a stiff neck, sometimes with aching muscles. Nausea, vomiting and other symptoms may occur
  6. Meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Several types of bacteria can first cause an upper respiratory tract infection and then travel through the bloodstream to the brain. The disease can also occur when certain bacteria invade the meninges directly

Bacterial Meningitis. Bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the membranes of the brain, is called bacterial meningitis. Effective vaccination helps prevent the condition Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus). It has a high mortality rate if untreated but is vaccine-preventable.While best known as a cause of meningitis, it can also result in sepsis, which is an even more damaging and dangerous condition.Meningitis and meningococcemia are major causes of illness, death, and. of multiple meningitis pathogens to be used at district-level hospitals in epidemic and endemic settings world-wide. Multi-pathogen IVD test for meningitis The purpose of this in vitro diagnostic test is to identify multiple meningitis pathogens, to assist in case management

Drugs used to treat Meningitis. The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition. Select drug class All drug classes amebicides (4) carbapenems (4) miscellaneous antibiotics (7) sulfonamides (7) aminoglycosides (7) second generation cephalosporins (3) third generation cephalosporins (6. What is Meningitis Disease? Meningitis is a disease that is caused by the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation is usually caused by an infection of the fluid (Cerebro Spinal Fluid) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This type of disease can be life-threatening due to the inflammation. In a pilot study of acute meningitis, CSF spectra from small numbers of controls, patients with viral meningitis and bacterial/fungal meningitis were distinguished using an unsupervised cluster analysis method , suggesting that classification according to etiology is possible using larger data sets. Since human cases of meningitis caused by.

Rapid Etiological Classification of Meningitis by NMR Spectroscopy Based on Metabolite Profiles and Host Re. sponse.pdf. Content available from CC BY 4.0: 0fcfd505899e8473ca000000.pdf Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It can affect anyone, but is most common in babies, young children, teenagers and young adults. Meningitis can be very serious if not treated quickly. It can cause life-threatening blood poisoning (septicaemia) and result in permanent. Meningococcal meningitis (International Classification of Disease-9 [ICD-9] code: 036.0) has been recognized as a serious problem for almost 200 years. It was first identified definitely by Vieusseux in Geneva in 1805 work, a LS-SVM based classification approach is propos ed that allows a quick classification of patients based on CER analysis. The proposed approach shows that th e meningitis virus can, ind eed.

This classification is based on the difference in the structure of cell wall carbohydrate ie. group specific polysaccharide antigen. Most strain of β-haemolytic group and some strain of α- hemolytic and non-haemolytic group are classified on the basis of cell wall polysaccharide. Streptococci are classified into 20 lancifield group from A to. Antibiotics Classification - Antibiotics was one of medical medicine's biggest success storeys. Although we equate them with the treatment of acute illnesses, from regular surgical operations to organ transplantations and cancer treatment, these medications underpin most of health care. Visit BYJU'S to learn more about i Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. The most common etiologic agents of acute meningitis are enteroviruses (primarily echoviruses and coxsackieviruses) and bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae) etc. Organisms expected to cause chronic meningitis (symptoms ≥4 weeks) include. Bacterial meningitis is an acute disease with high mortality that is reduced by early treatment. Identification of the causative microorganism by culture is sensitive but slow. Large volumes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are required to maximise sensitivity and establish a provisional diagnosis

The International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd Edition (ICHD-3) Abbreviated pocket version for reference by professional users only prepared by the 7.4.2 Headache attributed to carcinomatous meningitis 7.4.3 Headache attributed to hypothalamic or pituitary hyper- or hyposecretio Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infec-tion, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infec-tion. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angio- classification system of life that is the foundation of modern taxonomy (7). All of the kingdom Statistical Classification Strategy1 H NMR spectra of CSF from controls and animals with confirmed S. pneumoniae and C. neoformans meningitis (obtained three to eight days after infection) were used to develop three pairwise classifiers (for S. pneumoniae versus C. neoformans; C. neoformans versus control and S. pneumoniae versus control) as. Infectious disease is a disease caused by ingestion of pathogens (pathogenic) bacteria. Getting in the human body, such microbes have toxic effect on the body, thus causing a particular infection

Cephalosporin: structure, classification, clinical use and mode of action structure of cephalosporin. Cephalosporin is a β-lactam antibiotic that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis. In 1948 Dr. Abraham first isolated cephalosporin C from a fungus Cephalosporium acremonium Bacterial Meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. Death can occur in as little as a few hours. Most people recover from meningitis. However, permanent disabilities (such as brain damage, hearing loss, and learning disabilities) can result from the infection. Several types of bacteria can cause meningitis INTRODUCTION. From its original recognition in 1805 until the early 1900s, bacterial meningitis was virtually 100 percent fatal. In 1913, Simon Flexner's introduction of intrathecal meningococcal antiserum prevented some deaths, but the clinical outcome did not dramatically improve until the advent of systemic antimicrobial therapy in the 1930s [].. Laboratory Diagnosis of Meningitis, Meningitis, George Wireko-Brobby, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/29081. Available from: Over 21,000 IntechOpen readers like this topic. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers The Phylogeny and Classification of Anopheles. By Ralph E. Harbach

Classification of Persons Exposed to and/or Infected with M. tuberculosis This classification is based on the broad post-parasite relationships as described by exposure history, infection, and disease. It is intended mainly as an operational framework for public health programs. 0. No tuberculosis exposure, not infected Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing death or disability in more than half of those affected.The aim of this review is to examine recent advances in our understanding of TBM, focussing on the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating condition


Death from bacterial meningitis is rarely attributed to the actual event causing death. The present study therefore categorized and characterized the cause and time of death due to bacterial meningitis. In a cohort of patients > 15 years of age with community acquired bacterial meningitis the medical records were reviewed, and a clinical cause of death categorized into six main categories: 1. The annual incidence of bacterial meningitis is 4,100 cases and 500 deaths between the year 2003-2007 in USA. The frequency of different causative agents causing bacterial meningitis varies with different age groups.The incidence of Hemophilius influenza meningitis is higher in children younger than 5 years of age, rate estimated to be 31 cases. Dr Daniel J Bell and Dr Samer Alabed et al. The complications of acute bacterial meningitis can be remembered using the mnemonic: HACTIVE

Meningitis - Wikipedi

Meningitis: Symptoms, Causes, Types, Treatment, Risks, & Mor

Rifampin comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It should be taken with a full glass of water on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. When rifampin is used to treat tuberculosis, it is taken once daily. When rifampin is used to prevent the spread of Neisseria meningitidis bacteria to other people, it is taken twice daily for 2. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by a bacterial, fungal or viral infection. Meningitis can be acute, with a quick onset of symptoms, it can be chronic, lasting a month or more, or it can be mild or aseptic BACTERIAL CLASSIFICATION. The most recent taxonomic classification of bacteria is based on Cavalier and Smith's six kingdom classification(1998). It is the most accepted classification at present, surpassed the previous five kingdom classification (Whittaker, 1969) and three domain classification (Woese, 1990)(Table 1.4) During the past several decades, mortality rates for adults with bacterial meningitis have not decreased, despite progress in antibiotic therapy [].This observation has prompted studies that have investigated meningitis pathophysiology [6, 7], adjunctive therapies to suppress inflammation [1, 4, 7, 8-9], and identification of prognostic indicators for clinical outcome [10, 11] The classification of cerebral palsy (CP) remains a challenge; hence the presence of so many classifications and a lack of consensus. Each classification used alone is incomplete. Therefore, a multiaxial classification gives a more comprehensive description of a child with CP. The recent WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) emphasizes the importance of.

CT often plays a complementary, supportive, or confirmatory role in management of skull base fractures in conjunction with results of physical examination, laboratory testing, and neurosensory evaluation. CT provides prognostic information about short- and long-term risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, encephalocele, meningitis, facial nerve. Pyogenic meningitis, also referred as bacterial meningitis, is a life-threatening CNS infectious disease affecting the meninges, with elevated mortality and disability rates.Three bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis) account for the majority of cases 4,5

Bacterial meningitis is a rapid developing condition that may lead to severe morbidity (e.g. sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, motor problems, hydrocephalus, which since 1994 have been coded according to the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases, as well as surgical procedures, which since January 1996 have been. The Occupational Injury and Illness Classification Manual (OI&ICM) provides a classification system for use in coding the case characteristics of injuries and illnesses in the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) program and the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) program. This manual contains the rules of selection, code descriptions. / Hybrid SVM/CART classification of pathogenic species of bacterial meningitis with surface-enhanced raman scattering. Proceedings - 2010 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2010. 2010. pp. 406-409 (Proceedings - 2010 IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, BIBM 2010)


Viruses can store their genetic information in six different types of nucleic acid which are named based on how that nucleic acid eventually becomes transcribed to the viral mRNA (Figure 10.4. 1) capable of binding to host cell ribosomes and being translated into viral proteins. Figure 10.4. 1: Transcription of Viral Nucleic Acid into Viral mRNA By 1839, Louis Guersent (1777-1848) was able to propose a classification of meningitis that began to reflect modern views of the disease, separating out acute meningitis, chronic meningitis, meningitis due to trauma, epidemic meningitis, and a final subset of cases associated with mental illness (these likely including cases of the syndrome. Cranial anatomical defects may predispose to recurrent meningitis. 1 Although uncommon, a persistent craniopharyngeal duct may serve as a conduit for infective organisms to transcend intracranially. We describe a patient who presented with recurrent meningitis and was subsequently investigated to identify any underlying cause

Meningitis CD

Introduction. Bacterial meningitis is an important cause of hospital admission in the UK, with an estimated 900 cases in adults every year.1 Although viral meningitis is more common,2 3 bacterial meningitis is more severe and requires urgent investigation and treatment to improve the outcome.4 Even with treatment, 10-30% of patients die, and sequelae, especially hearing loss, occur in 5-40. The long-term effects of meningitis are more likely to occur when the acute phase is associated with complications, as these complications can cause brain damage. Complications generally cause profound symptoms during the acute phase—including confusion, difficulty breathing, and loss of consciousness. These health issues require prompt.

Neisseria meningitidis -- Meningitis - microbewik

OBJECTIVES: The pathogens that cause bacterial meningitis in infants and their antimicrobial susceptibilities may have changed in this era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, use of conjugated vaccines, and maternal antibiotic prophylaxis for group B Streptococcus (GBS). The objective was to determine the optimal empirical antibiotics for bacterial meningitis in early infancy We also classifed participants on the basis of the consensus uniform case definitions for tuberculous meningitis (appendix pp 2-5). 10 When excluding Xpert Ultra results in the classification of definite tuberculous meningitis (to avoid incorporation bias), we diagnosed only 14 participants with definite tuberculous meningitis, and classified.

Pathophysiology Meningiti

Meningitis: Definition, Classification, and Signs. Meningitis (plural meningitides) is a nasty condition. From the first post, we already know that meningitis is defined as the inflammation of the meninges. The meninges (singular meninx) are the protective coverings of the brain, and there are three layers, listed outermost to innermost Several germs can cause bacterial meningitis. The main culprits are: Group B Streptococcus, responsible for many types of strep infections like strep throat. Haemophilus influenzae, also known as 'Hib'. Listeria monocytogenes, often spread through contaminated food. Neisseria meningitidis, which causes the meningococcal form of meningitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which also causes a.

Diagnosis, Initial Management, and Prevention of

Meningitis presentation - SlideShar

Antibiotic Classification & Mechanism. a bacterial gene encoding a penicillin-binding protein (PBP2a). peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity. increased rates of tendinitis, with special predilection for the Achilles tendon. tenocytes in the Achilles tendon have exhibited degenerative changes when viewed. Features are consistent with viral meningitis. After performing CSF analysis of patient, viral meningitis was the final diagnosis. The patient gradually recovered with supportive care and after medical treatment, the patient was discharged. Leptomeningeal enhancement with ventriculitis are radiologic signs for meningitis ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the classification of Fungi. Oomycetes - The Oogamous Fungi: ADVERTISEMENTS: Some of the important points of Oomycetes are listed below: 1. The mycelium is coenocyte (multinucleate and aseptate). 2. Hyphal wall contains cellulose and other glucans in many members. In some cases chitin or fungus cellulose [

(PDF) Rapid etiological classification of meningitis by

REVISED WHO CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT OF CHILDHOOD PNEUMONIA AT HEALTH FACILITIES: EVIDENCE SUMMARIES 3 Recommendation 4 Ampicillin (or penicillin when ampicillin is not available) plus gentamicin or ceftriaxone are recom-mended as a first-line antibiotic regimen for HIV-infected and -exposed infants and for childre Bacterial meningitis manifests most commonly with fever, headache, and a stiff neck; the disease may progress rapidly to shock and death. However, other manifestations may be observed. Laboratory Criteria For Diagnosis Isolation of a bacterial species from the cerebrospinal fluid Case Classification Confirme Neisseria Meningitidis is a bacteria that is best known for its role in endemic bacterial meningitis.N. Meningitidis is described as a gram-negative diplococci. The fact that this bacteria is gram negative means that there is very little or no peptidoglycan in the cell wall We reviewed the medical records of all patients aged 29 days to 19 years who received a diagnosis of meningitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification[ICD-9-CM], with the following codes: bacterial meningitis, 320.0-320.9; viral meningitis, 046.0-048.9; or unspecified meningitis, 321.0-322.9) at each of.

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AEFIs are grouped into five categories. Vaccine product-related reaction. An AEFI that is caused or precipitated by a vaccine due to one or more of the inherent properties of the vaccine product. Example: extensive limb swelling following DTP vaccination, aseptic meningitis following mump vaccine. Vaccine quality defect-related reaction Classification of Case Community-Acquired Meningitis. There were 296 episodes of community-acquired meningitis in 275 patients; 253 patients had single episodes of meningitis, 17 patients had more. Introduction and Classification of Parasites is an very important and basic topic of Parasitology. Parasitology is the branch of Science which mainly deals about all the Parasites and its infectious diseases. Heart Disease, meningitis, Esquizofrenia, Toxoplasmosis, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, Lupus, Epilepsy, Stroke,Eczema, Erysipelas Eating. Meningitis: symptoms in adults: how to recognize the first signs, classification, treatment of the disease. Posted on August 5, 2021 August 5, 2021 by Tony Hulk 0 Commonly used meningitis treatments include a class of antibiotics called cephalosporins, especially Claforan (cefotaxime) and Rocephin (ceftriaxone). Various penicillin-type antibiotics. Meningitis is a serious condition that can even cause death. Children are commonly affected and it often appears as outbreaks. Test your knowledge on meningitis by taking this quiz